Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Use of Microhotplates in the Controlled Growth and Characterization of Metal Oxides for Chemical Sensing



Richard E. Cavicchi, Stephen Semancik, F DiMeo, C J. Taylor


Microhotplates are micromachined platforms with integrated heaters and contact electrodes that can be used as miniature substrates for metal oxide film growth. Fabricated as arrays, they enable efficient combinatorial studies to be performed on a single chip. A variety of growth methods are compatible with their use, including evaporation, sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and deposition from pastes or sol gels using screen printing, drop deposition, or spin-coating. The microheater on each element may be used to control the temperature during deposition or for a post-annealing step such as sintering, while the built-in film contact electrodes allow real-time monitoring of the deposition process. In chemical vapor deposition using arrays, the elements with heaters set above the lowest nucleation temperature for a given precursor are the only ones that will have film deposited on them, resulting in a self-lithographic process. This review gives examples of different methods of film growth that have been employed on microhotplates with applications for chemical sensing, with an emphasis on chemical vapor deposition.
Journal of Electroceramics
No. 3


chemical vapor deposition, gas sensor, membrane, microhotplate, micromachined, tin oxide


Cavicchi, R. , Semancik, S. , DiMeo, F. and Taylor, C. (2003), Use of Microhotplates in the Controlled Growth and Characterization of Metal Oxides for Chemical Sensing, Journal of Electroceramics, [online], (Accessed July 18, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created December 1, 2003, Updated November 10, 2018