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An Update Guide for HAZARD I Version 1.2



Richard D. Peacock, Walter W. Jones, Glenn P. Forney, Paul A. Reneke, Richard W. Bukowski, J H. Klote


A method for quantifying the hazards to occupants of buildings from fires, and the relative contribution of specific products (e.g., furniture, wire insulation) to those hazards is presented. This method,called HAZARD I, combines expert judgment and calculations to estimate the consequences of a specified fire. These procedures involve four steps: 1) defining the context, 2) defining the scenario, 3) calculating the hazard, and 4) evaluating the consequences. Steps 1, 2, and 4 are largely judgmental and depend on the expertise of the user. Step 3, which involves use of the extensive computer software, requires considerable expertise in fire safety practice. The heart of HAZARD I is a sequence of computer software procedures which calculate the development of hazardous conditions over time, calculate the time needed by building occupants to escape under those conditions, and estimate the resulting loss of life based on assumed occupant behavior and tenability criteria. This report describes the theory and use of the latest update to the software implementing the hazard methodology. It is intended to supplement an existing Technical Reference Guide and Software User's Guide for Version 1.1 of the methodology, NIST Handbook 146. As such, it does not replace the existing documents.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 5410
Report Number


Computer models, computer programs, evacutaion, fire models, fire research, hazard assessment, human behavior, toxicity


Peacock, R. , Jones, W. , Forney, G. , Reneke, P. , Bukowski, R. and Klote, J. (1994), An Update Guide for HAZARD I Version 1.2, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed July 15, 2024)


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Created May 1, 1994, Updated November 21, 2013