Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

A-UGV Capabilities - Recommended Guide to Autonomy Levels



Roger V. Bostelman, Elena R. Messina


A-UGV has been defined by ASTM Committee F45 as an "Automatic, Automated, or Autonomous vehicle that operates while in contact with the ground without a human operator." However, what do the levels actually mean to manufacturers, users, or especially potential users? This paper defines, and in many cases provides examples of, recommended autonomy levels for all three automatic, automated, and autonomous unmanned ground vehicles.
Proceedings Title
3rd IEEE International Conference on Robotic Computing
Conference Dates
February 25-27, 2019
Conference Location
Naples, IT


A-UGV, autonomous, capability, ASTM F45, classifiers


Bostelman, R. and Messina, E. (2019), A-UGV Capabilities - Recommended Guide to Autonomy Levels, 3rd IEEE International Conference on Robotic Computing, Naples, IT, [online], (Accessed July 21, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created February 26, 2019, Updated April 14, 2022