A-UGV Capabilities - Recommended Guide to Autonomy Levels
Roger V. Bostelman, Elena R. Messina
A-UGV has been defined by ASTM Committee F45 as an "Automatic, Automated, or Autonomous vehicle that operates while in contact with the ground without a human operator." However, what do the levels actually mean to manufacturers, users, or especially potential users? This paper defines, and in many cases provides examples of, recommended autonomy levels for all three automatic, automated, and autonomous unmanned ground vehicles.
3rd IEEE International Conference on Robotic Computing