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Topography Measurements and Applications



Jun-Feng Song, Theodore V. Vorburger


Based on auto- and cross-correlation functions (ACF and CCF), a new surface parameter called profile (or topography) difference, Ds, has been developed for quantifying differences between 2D profiles or between 3D topographies with a single number.  When Ds = 0, the two compared 2D profiles or 3D topographies must be exactly the same (point by point).  A 2D and 3D topography measurement system was established at NIST.  This system includes a data acquisition station using a stylus instrument and a confocal microscope, and a correlation program using the proposed parameters Ds and the cross-correlation function maximum CCFmax.    Applications in forensic science and surface metrology are described; those include profile signature measurements for 40 NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 bullets, and comparisons of profile measurements with four different techniques.  An approach to optimizing the Gaussian filter long wavelength cutoff length is proposed for topography measurements.
Proceedings Title
Proceedings of the 2006 International Symposium on Precision Mechanical Measurements (ISPMM)
Conference Dates
August 3-6, 2006
Conference Location
Urumqi, CH
Conference Title
2006 International Symposium on Precision Mechanical Measurements (ISPMM)


ACF, auto-correlation function, ballistics identification, CCF, cross-correlation function, forensic science, surface metrology


Song, J. and Vorburger, T. (2006), Topography Measurements and Applications, Proceedings of the 2006 International Symposium on Precision Mechanical Measurements (ISPMM), Urumqi, CH (Accessed June 14, 2024)


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Created December 31, 2005, Updated June 24, 2021