Time for a Better Receiver: Chip-Scale Atomic Frequency References
John E. Kitching
Atomic clocks and precision timing are at the core of almost every aspect of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). A GNSS receiver determines its position with respect to a subset of the constellation of orbiting satellites by measuring the time taken by a radio frequency (RF) signal to travel the distance between the satellite and the receiver. Through a multilateration process, the receiver is able to determine its three spatial coordinates and clock offset from information from a minimum of four satellite signals. Nanosecond-level timing is typically required for positioning with a precision of 1 meter.