Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Threshold and Laser Conversion in Nanostructured-Resonator Parametric Oscillators



Haixin Liu, Grant Brodnik, Jizhao Zang, David Carlson, Jennifer Black, Scott Papp


We explore optical parametric oscillation (OPO) in nanophotonic resonators, enabling arbitrary, nonlinear phase matching and nearly lossless control of energy conversion. Such pristine OPO laser converters are determined by nonlinear light-matter interactions, making them both technologically flexible and broadly reconfigurable. We utilize a nanostructured inner-wall modulation in the resonator to achieve universal phase matching for OPO-laser conversion, but coherent backscattering also induces a counterpropagating pump laser. This depletes the intraresonator optical power in either direction, increasing the OPO threshold power and limiting laser-conversion efficiency, the ratio of optical power in target signal and idler frequencies to the pump. We develop an analytical model of this system that emphasizes an understanding of optimal laser-conversion and threshold behaviors, and we use the model to guide experiments with nanostructured-resonator OPO laser-conversion circuits, fully integrated on chip and unlimited by group velocity dispersion. Our Letter demonstrates the fundamental connection between OPO laser-conversion efficiency and the resonator coupling rate, subject to the relative phase and power of counterpropagating pump fields. We achieve (40+-4) mW of on-chip power, corresponding to (41+-4)% conversion efficiency, and discover a path toward near-unity OPO laser-conversion efficiency.
Physical Review Letters


Nonlinear Optics, Microresonator, Optical parametric oscillation, Nanophotonics


Liu, H. , Brodnik, G. , Zang, J. , Carlson, D. , Black, J. and Papp, S. (2024), Threshold and Laser Conversion in Nanostructured-Resonator Parametric Oscillators, Physical Review Letters, [online],, (Accessed April 17, 2024)
Created January 10, 2024, Updated March 5, 2024