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A Threat Analysis on UOCAVA Voting Systems



Andrew R. Regenscheid, Nelson E. Hastings


This report contains the results of NIST s research into technologies to improve the voting process for United States citizens living overseas. It splits the overseas voting process into three stages: voter registration and ballot request, blank ballot delivery, and voted ballot return. For each stage, this report describes how various transmission options could be used to support overseas voting. The transmission options discussed in this paper are postal mail, telephone, fax, electronic mail, and web-based systems. This report documents a threat analysis based on the methodology provided in NIST SP 800-30 for each method. As part of the analysis, mitigating controls for each threat are provided when possible. The mitigating controls for each threat provided in this report provide the basis for an effort to develop best practices for overseas voting systems.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 7551
Report Number


overseas voting, security, security controls, threat analysis, Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act, UOCAVA, voting, voting systems


Regenscheid, A. and Hastings, N. (2008), A Threat Analysis on UOCAVA Voting Systems, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed April 24, 2024)
Created December 19, 2008, Updated November 10, 2018