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Thermodynamics of nonlinear bolometers near equilibrium

Published

Author(s)

Kent D. Irwin

Abstract

We present the first rigorous and thermodynamically correct calculation of the noise in a simple nonlinear, nonequilibrium resistive bolometer or calorimeter. Existing models of noise in resistive bolometers are based on the application of equilibrium theories to a system that is often nonlinear and out of equilibrium. We derive near-equilibrium solutions applicable both in and out of steady state. The power spectral density of the noise differs from the equilibrium theory, and it has higher order correlations and non-Gaussian characteristics. Zero-frequency Langevin force terms prevent the rectification of thermodynamic noise, which would violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The solution is only rigorous for first- and second-order deviations from equilibrium, and for the linear and quadratic terms of dissipative elements. The results do not apply to non-Markovian hidden variables in the bolometer, such as internal temperature gradients and fluctuating current paths.
Citation
Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume
A559

Keywords

bolometer, calorimeter, nonequilibrium noise, nonlinear noise

Citation

Irwin, K. (2006), Thermodynamics of nonlinear bolometers near equilibrium, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment (Accessed June 21, 2024)

Issues

If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact reflib@nist.gov.

Created January 4, 2006, Updated January 27, 2020