Thermodynamics of nonlinear bolometers near equilibrium
Kent D. Irwin
We present the first rigorous and thermodynamically correct calculation of the noise in a simple nonlinear, nonequilibrium resistive bolometer or calorimeter. Existing models of noise in resistive bolometers are based on the application of equilibrium theories to a system that is often nonlinear and out of equilibrium. We derive near-equilibrium solutions applicable both in and out of steady state. The power spectral density of the noise differs from the equilibrium theory, and it has higher order correlations and non-Gaussian characteristics. Zero-frequency Langevin force terms prevent the rectification of thermodynamic noise, which would violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The solution is only rigorous for first- and second-order deviations from equilibrium, and for the linear and quadratic terms of dissipative elements. The results do not apply to non-Markovian hidden variables in the bolometer, such as internal temperature gradients and fluctuating current paths.
Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment
Thermodynamics of nonlinear bolometers near equilibrium, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment
(Accessed May 29, 2023)