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Ternary Zeotropic Mixture With CO2 Component for R-22 Heat Pump Application



K Maczeck, J Muller, K Wojtas, Piotr A. Domanski


The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a successful operation of a high efficiency heat pump employing a zeotropic mixture with a zero ozone-depletion and a small greenhouse warming potential (ODP and GWP, respectively). The project addresses the technical challenges resulting from international agreements regulating the use of ozone-depleting substances. The signatory countries of the Montreal Protocol agreed to phase out production of chlorine-containing refrigerants with deadlines depending on the ODP of the fluids. A search for a proper substitute has to consider factors such as capacity, efficiency, flammability, oil/refrigerant solubility, toxicity, etd. This study investigaged possible R-22 alternatives with the goal of achieving a comparable system capacity and 10% improvement in Coefficient of Performance (COP). The tests were performed in COCH (Refrigerating Machinery Research Center in Cracow, Poland).
Proceedings Title
CLIMA 2000 Conference Proceedings
Conference Dates
August 30-September 2, 1997
Conference Location
Brussels, BE


zeotropic mixture, alternative refrigerants, heat pumps, carbon dioxide


Maczeck, K. , Muller, J. , Wojtas, K. and Domanski, P. (1997), Ternary Zeotropic Mixture With CO2 Component for R-22 Heat Pump Application, CLIMA 2000 Conference Proceedings, Brussels, BE, [online], (Accessed April 17, 2024)
Created August 29, 1997, Updated October 12, 2021