This paper describes past and present fingerprint activity at NIST. While the primary focus is on latent fingerprints, the paper also surveys relevant general biometrics activity. The central focus of the paper is on the Latent Testing Workshop, held on the NIST Campus April 5-6, and the lessons that were learned from it. The primary goal of the workshop was to gather information for the creation of a "Latent Grand Challenge," whose purpose is to stimulate AFIS vendors to submit their prototype Latent AFIS systems for evaluation. To lay the foundations for such testing it is necessary that: 1) suitable test sets be identified and prepared; 2) the Application interface Program (AIP) be defined; and 3) the optimal method of performance scoring be defined .