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State-of-the-art Review on Measurement of Pressure Losses of Fluid Flow through Pipe Fittings



Lingnan Lin, Marylia Duarte Batista, Natascha S. Milesi-Ferretti


This report presents a state-of-the-art review of the measurement of pressure loss of pipe fittings. The mechanisms of pressure loss in pipes and fittings are discussed to facilitate the understanding of this these measurement and their challenges problem. Existing methods for measuring the pressure loss of pipe fittings are critically reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of each method and other general considerations are discussed. The instrumentation techniques are illustrated in detail, including guidelines and considerations for the design or selection of pressure taps, impulse lines, pressure transducers, and flow meters. The available pressure loss data of pipe fittings, published from 1926 to 2019, are reviewed. In general, most of the existing data are not representative of modern pipe fittings and flow conditions. Future research efforts are described to focus on developing a standard method of test and terminology, and generating new representative data for modern pipe fittings.
Technical Note (NIST TN) - 2206
Report Number


fitting, flow, measurement, pressure loss, pipe


Lin, L. , Duarte Batista, M. and Milesi-Ferretti, N. (2022), State-of-the-art Review on Measurement of Pressure Losses of Fluid Flow through Pipe Fittings, Technical Note (NIST TN), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed May 26, 2024)


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Created June 30, 2022, Updated November 29, 2022