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Stable Nitride Precipitation in Additively Manufactured Nickel Superalloys



James Zuback, Fan Zhang, Andrew Iams, Lucille Giannuzzi, Todd Palmer


With negligible quantities of nitrogen, wrought and welded solid solution strengthened nickel superalloys usually contain carbides and topologically close-packed phases, such as Laves phase. However, appreciable nitrogen levels on the order of 0.1 mass % drove the precipitation of a range of unanticipated nitride phases in additively manufactured Inconel® 625 in the as-deposited and post process hot isostatically pressed conditions. Different nitride phases were observed with small changes in alloy chemistry. Cubic metal nitrides (MN), tetragonal Z-phase (CrNbN), and diamond-cubic metal η-nitrides (M6N) were found within the  matrix of Inconel® 625 containing relatively low Fe (1 mass%), low Ti (0.02 mass %), and high Si (0.39 mass %) levels. Conversely, these phases were replaced by only MN nitrides in a similar Inconel® 625 alloy with elevated levels of Ti (0.21 mass %) and Fe (4 mass %). These various phases, however, were not fully predicted using state-of-the-art computational thermodynamic tools and databases, indicating a sparsity of data for nickel superalloys. Even after hot isostatic pressing, many nitrides persisted and only experienced slight changes in composition and lattice parameters in both materials. The stability of these nitride phases presents a potential pathway for achieving enhanced high temperature and creep properties within this and similar alloy systems.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds


Additive manufacturing, Nickel superalloy, Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), CALPHAD


Zuback, J. , Zhang, F. , Iams, A. , Giannuzzi, L. and Palmer, T. (2022), Stable Nitride Precipitation in Additively Manufactured Nickel Superalloys, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, [online],, (Accessed May 18, 2024)


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Created April 6, 2022, Updated November 29, 2022