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SoK: How (not) to Design and Implement Post-Quantum Cryptography



James Howe, Thomas Prest, Daniel Apon


Post-quantum cryptography has known a Cambrian Explosion in the last decade. What started as a very theoretical and mathematical area has now evolved into a sprawling research field, complete with side-channel resistant embedded implementations, large scale deployment tests and standardization efforts. This study systematizes the current state of knowledge on post-quantum cryptography. Compared to existing studies, we adopt a transversal point of view and center our study around three areas: (i) paradigms, (ii) implementation, (iii) deployment. Our point of view allows to cast almost all classical and post-quantum schemes into just a few paradigms. We highlight trends, common methodologies, pitfalls for look for and recurrent challenges.
Proceedings Title
The Cryptographer's Track at the RSA Conference
Conference Dates
May 17-21, 2021
Conference Location
San Francisco, CA, US


Systematization of Knowledge, Post-quantum cryptography


Howe, J. , Prest, T. and Apon, D. (2021), SoK: How (not) to Design and Implement Post-Quantum Cryptography, The Cryptographer's Track at the RSA Conference , San Francisco, CA, US, [online],, (Accessed July 18, 2024)


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Created May 17, 2021, Updated April 8, 2024