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Single-Crystalline Ceramic Whisker-Reinforced Carboxylic Acid-Resin Composites With Fluoride Release



H H. Xu, F Eichmiller, Joseph M. Antonucci, Glenn M. Flaim


Currently available glass ionomer, resin-modified glass ionomer and compomer materials are susceptible to brittle fracture and, therefore, are inadequate for use in stress bearing posterior restorations. In the present study, ceramic single-crystalline whiskers were mixed with fluorosilicate glass particles and used as fillers to reinforce experimental carboxylic acid-resin composites. The carboxylic acid was monofunctional methacryloyloxyethyl phthalate (MEP). Five mass fractions of whisker/(whisker + fluorosilicate glass), and corresponding resin/(resin + MEP), were evaluated. Four control materials were also tested for comparison: a glass ionomer, a resin-modified glass ionomer, a compomer, and a hybrid composite resin. Flexural specimens were fabricated to measure the flexural strength, elastic modulus, and work-of-fracture (an indication of toughness). Fluoride release was measured by using a fluoride ion selective electrode. The properties of whisker composites depended on the whisker/(whisker + fluorosilicate glass) mass fraction. At a mass fraction of 0.8, the whisker composite had a flexural strength in MPa (mean sd; n = 6) of (150 16), significantly higher than that of a glass ionomer (15 7) or a compomer control (89 18) (Tukey's multiple comparison test; family confidence coefficient = 0.95). Depending on the ratio of whisker fluorosilicate glass, the whisker composites had a cumulative fluoride release up to 60 % of that of a traditional glass ionomer. To conclude, combining ceramic whiskers and fluorosilicate glass in a carboxylic acid-resin matrix can result in fluoride releasing composites with significantly improved mechanical properties.
Operative Dentistry
No. 2


carboxylic acid, ceramic whisker, dental composite, fluoride release, reinforcement, strength


Xu, H. , Eichmiller, F. , Antonucci, J. and Flaim, G. (2000), Single-Crystalline Ceramic Whisker-Reinforced Carboxylic Acid-Resin Composites With Fluoride Release, Operative Dentistry, [online], (Accessed April 14, 2024)
Created February 29, 2000, Updated October 12, 2021