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Sequence-based U.S. population data for 27 autosomal STR loci



Katherine Gettings, Lisa Borsuk, Carolyn R. Steffen, Kevin M. Kiesler, Peter Vallone


This manuscript reports STR sequence-based allele frequencies for the "NIST 1036" sample set across 27 autosomal STR loci: D1S1656, TPOX, D2S441, D2S1338, D3S1358, D4S2408, FGA, D5S818, CSF1PO, D6S1043, D7S820, D8S1179, D9S1122, D10S1248, TH01, vWA, D12S391, D13S317, Penta E, D16S539, D17S1301, D18S51, D19S433, D20S482, D21S11, Penta D, and D22S1045. Sequence data was analyzed by two bioinformatic pipelines and all samples have been evaluated for concordance with alleles derived from CE-based analysis at all loci. Each reported sequence includes high- quality flanking sequence and is properly formatted according to the most recent guidance of the International Society for Forensic Genetics. In addition, GenBank accession numbers are reported for each sequence, and associated records are available in the STRSeq BioProject ( The D3S1358 locus demonstrates the greatest average increase in heterozygosity across populations (approximately 10 %). Loci demonstrating average increase in heterozygosity from 10 % to 5 % include (in descending order) D9S1122, D13S317, D8S1179, D21S11, D5S818, D12S391, and D2S441. The remaining 19 loci demonstrate less than 5 % increase in average heterozygosity. Discussion includes the utility of this data in understanding traditional CE results, such as informing stutter models and understanding migration challenges, and considerations for population sampling strategies in light of the marked increase in rare alleles for several of the sequence-based STR loci. This NIST 1036 data set is expected to support the implementation of STR sequencing forensic casework by providing high-confidence sequence-based allele frequencies for the same sample set which are already the basis for population statistics in many U.S. forensic laboratories.
Forensic Science International: Genetics


STR, sequence, forensic


Gettings, K. , Borsuk, L. , Steffen, C. , Kiesler, K. and Vallone, P. (2018), Sequence-based U.S. population data for 27 autosomal STR loci, Forensic Science International: Genetics, [online], (Accessed May 19, 2024)


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Created July 18, 2018, Updated February 13, 2020