Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Self-Driven Highly Responsive PN Junction InSe Heterostructure Near-Infrared Light Detector



Chandraman Patil, Chaobo Dong, Hao Wang, Hamed Dalir, Sergiy Krylyuk, Huairuo Zhang, Albert Davydov, Volker Sorger


Photodetectors converting light signals into detectable photocurrents are ubiquitously in use today. To improve the compactness and performance of next-generation devices and systems, low dimensional materials provide rich physics to engineering the light-matter interaction. Photodetectors based on two-dimensional (2D) material van der Waals heterostructures have shown high responsivity and compact integration capability, mainly in the visible range due to their intrinsic bandgap. The spectral region of near-infrared (NIR) is technologically important featuring many data communication and sensing applications. While some initial NIR 2D material-based detectors have emerged, demonstrations of doping-junction-based 2D material photodetectors with the capability to harness the charge-separation photovoltaic effect are yet outstanding. Here, we demonstrate a 2D p–n van der Waals heterojunction photodetector constructed by vertically stacking p-type and n-type indium selenide (InSe) flakes. This heterojunction charge-separation-based photodetector shows a three-fold enhancement in responsivity in the near-infrared spectral region (980 nm) as compared to photoconductor detectors based on p- or n-only doped InSe. We show that this junction device exhibits self-powered photodetection operation, low dark currents, and is about 3 to 4 orders of magnitude more efficient than the state-of-the-art foundry-based devices. Such capability opens doors for low noise and low photon flux photodetectors that do not rely on external gain. We further demonstrate millisecond response rates in this sensitive zero-bias voltage regime. Such sensitive photodetection capability in the technologically relevant NIR wavelength region at low form factors holds promise for several applications including wearable biosensors, 3D sensing, and remote gas sensing.
Photonics Research


Indium selenide, heterojunction, 2D pn junction, self-driven photodetector, Near-infrared detection


Patil, C. , Dong, C. , Wang, H. , Dalir, H. , Krylyuk, S. , Zhang, H. , Davydov, A. and Sorger, V. (2022), Self-Driven Highly Responsive PN Junction InSe Heterostructure Near-Infrared Light Detector, Photonics Research, [online],, (Accessed May 23, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created June 30, 2022, Updated December 1, 2022