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Publications

Search Publications by

Leon Chao (Fed)

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Displaying 1 - 25 of 29

A New Spin on Kibble: A Self Calibrating Torque Realization Device at NIST

June 3, 2022
Author(s)
Zane Comden, Stephan Schlamminger, Charles Waduwarage Perera, Frank Seifert, David B. Newell, Jay H. Hendricks, Barbara L. Goldstein, Leon Chao
After the 2019 redefinition of the International System of Units (SI), torque no longer needs to be traceable to a calibrated weight suspended from a known lever arm. Specifically, a modification of the Kibble principle used for realizing the kilogram

The Crane Operator's Tricks and other Shenanigans with a Pendulum

February 18, 2022
Author(s)
Stephan Schlamminger, Leon Chao, David B. Newell, Vincent Lee
The dynamics of a swinging payload suspended from a stationary crane can be described as a simple pendulum, typically an unwelcome phenomenon on a construction site. An experienced crane operator can deliver a swinging payload and stop dead on target in a

The Design of an Instrument to Realize Small Torque at NIST

August 22, 2020
Author(s)
Leon S. Chao, Rafael Marangoni, Frank C. Seifert, Darine El Haddad, Jon R. Pratt, David B. Newell, Stephan Schlamminger
After the recent redefinition of the International System of Units (SI), torque no longer needs to be traceable to a calibrated mass in a gravitational field suspended from a known lever arm and disseminated through a chain of torque transducers.An SI

The Design and Development of a Tabletop Kibble Balance at NIST

May 23, 2019
Author(s)
Leon S. Chao, Frank C. Seifert, Darine El Haddad, Julian Stirling, David B. Newell, Stephan Schlamminger
On November 16, 2018, the 26th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) voted unanimously to revise the International System of Units (SI) from a system built on seven base units to one built on seven defining constants and will officially become

The Design and Development of a Tabletop Kibble Balance at NIST

March 20, 2019
Author(s)
Leon S. Chao, Frank C. Seifert, Darine El Haddad, Stephan Schlamminger
A global paradigm shift to redefine the International System of Units (SI) from a system based on seven fundamental units to seven fundamental constants is well under way. More specifically, the unit of mass, the kilogram, will be realized via a fixed

Measurement of the Planck constant at the National Institute of Standards and Technology from 2015 to 2017

July 28, 2017
Author(s)
Darine El Haddad, Frank Seifert, Leon Chao, Antonio Possolo, David B. Newell, Jon R. Pratt, Carl J. Williams, Stephan Schlamminger
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology(NIST) estimate the value of the Planck constant as h = 6.62606994(10) x 10^-34 Js, hence with relative standard uncertainty 15.3 x 10^-9. This measurement result is based on over 17,000

Bridging classical and quantum mechanics

September 28, 2016
Author(s)
Darine El Haddad, Frank C. Seifert, Leon S. Chao, Shisong Lee, David B. Newell, Jon R. Pratt, Carl J. Williams, Stephan Schlamminger
Using a watt balance and a frequency comb, a mass-energy equivalence is derived. The watt balance compares mechanical power measured in terms of the meter, the second, and the kilogram to electrical power measured in terms of the volt and the ohm. A direct

Design of a Table-Top Watt Balance

July 26, 2016
Author(s)
Stephan Schlamminger, Jon R. Pratt, David B. Newell, Frank C. Seifert, Michael Liu, Leon S. Chao, Luis Manuel Pea Prez, Shisong Li, Darine El Haddad
Measurements of the Planck constant with watt balances using 1 kg masses have achieved relative standard uncertainties below 2 x 10-8. Having established a metrological link between the kilogram and this fundamental constant of nature, a redefinition of

First mass measurements with the NIST-4 watt balance

July 10, 2016
Author(s)
Darine El Haddad, Leon S. Chao, Frank C. Seifert, David B. Newell, Jon R. Pratt, Stephan Schlamminger
In the past four years, we have constructed a new watt balance at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), with the goal to realize the unit of mass after the redefinition of the International System of Units, expected to occur in 2018

A precise instrument to determine the Planck constant, and the future kilogram

June 21, 2016
Author(s)
Darine El Haddad, Frank C. Seifert, Leon S. Chao, David B. Newell, Jon R. Pratt, Carl J. Williams, Stephan Schlamminger, Shisong Li
A precise instrument, called a watt balance, compares mechanical power measured in terms of the meter, the second and the kilogram to electrical power measured in terms of the volt and the ohm. A direct link between mechanical action and the Planck

Coil motion effects in watt balances: a theoretical check

February 10, 2016
Author(s)
Stephan Schlamminger, Shisong Li, Darine El Haddad, Frank C. Seifert, Leon S. Chao, Jon R. Pratt
A watt balance is a precision apparatus for the measurement of the Planck constant that has been proposed as a primary method for realizing the unit of mass in a revised International System of Units. In contrast to an ampere balance, which was

A LEGO Watt Balance, An apparatus to demonstrate the definition of mass based on the new SI

October 20, 2015
Author(s)
Leon S. Chao, Stephan Schlamminger, David B. Newell, Jon R. Pratt, Georgio A. Sineriz, Frank C. Seifert, Darine El Haddad, Yusi A. Cao, Xiang Zhang
A redefinition of our system of units, the SI, is currently being discussed and its implementation is expected in 2018. With the redefinition, the current base units will no longer be required and all units henceforth will be based upon fixed values of

First measurements of the flux integral with the new NIST-4 watt balance

March 31, 2015
Author(s)
Darine El Haddad, Frank Seifert, Leon Chao, Yusi A. Cao, Georgio A. Sineriz, Jon R. Pratt, David B. Newell, Stephan Schlamminger
In early 2014, construction of a new watt balance, named NIST-4, has started at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In a watt balance, similar to a mass comparator, the gravitational force of an unknown mass is compensated by an

A summary of the Planck constant measurements using a watt balance with a superconducting solenoid at NIST

February 5, 2015
Author(s)
Stephan Schlamminger, Richard L. Steiner, Darine El Haddad, David B. Newell, Frank C. Seifert, Leon S. Chao, Ruimin Liu, Edwin R. Williams
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology have been using a watt balance, NIST-3, to measure the Planck constant h for over ten years. Two recently published values disagree by more than one standard deviation. The motivation for

A determination of the local acceleration of gravity for the NIST-4 watt balance

January 21, 2015
Author(s)
David B. Newell, Eric J. Leaman, Darine El Haddad, Frank C. Seifert, Leon S. Chao, Yusi A. Cao, Jon R. Pratt, Stephan Schlamminger
A new watt balance is being constructed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in preparation for the redefinition of the International System of Units and the realization of mass through an exact value of the Planck constant. The total

A constant from a mass, a mass from a constant

November 9, 2014
Author(s)
Jon R. Pratt, Stephan Schlamminger, David B. Newell, Leon S. Chao, Zeina J. Kubarych, Patrick J. Abbott, Yusi A. Cao, Frank C. Seifert, Darine El Haddad
NIST recently used a watt balance instrument known as NIST-3 to measure the Planck constant in terms of IPK with a relative uncertainty of approximately 45 parts in 10e9. Along the way to this new NIST value of h, the instrument was also employed to

THE CONSTRUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NIST-4 PERMANENT MAGNET SYSTEM

November 9, 2014
Author(s)
Leon S. Chao, Frank C. Seifert, Shisong Li, Darine El Haddad, Stephan Schlamminger, Jon R. Pratt
A watt balance is an electromagnetic force balancing instrument to realize the unit of mass at the kilogram level. The magnet system is one of the key components. Our group at the National Institute of Standards and Technology is currently building a next

Construction and Performance of the NIST-4 Magnet System

August 24, 2014
Author(s)
Frank C. Seifert, Alireza R. Panna, Leon S. Chao, Yusi A. Cao, Darine El Haddad, Shisong Li, Stephan Schlamminger, Jon R. Pratt, Heeju Choi, Lori Haley
A watt balance is a promising instrument to realize the unit of mass at the kilogram level. The magnet system is one of the key elements of such an instrument. For the new watt balance currently under construction at the National Institute of Standards and

Heterodyne interferometer with subnanometer accuracy

August 24, 2014
Author(s)
Darine El Haddad, Frank C. Seifert, Stephan Schlamminger, Leon S. Chao, David B. Newell, Jon R. Pratt
This paper gives a brief description of the laser interferometer system designed for the next generation watt balance experiment aimed to realize the unit of mass by direct link to Planck constant at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The

The Design of the NEW NIST-4 Watt Balance

August 24, 2014
Author(s)
Leon S. Chao, Stephan Schlamminger, Frank C. Seifert, Yusi A. Cao, Darine El Haddad, David B. Newell, Jon R. Pratt
The design of the new permanent-magnet driven watt balance and novel mechanical features will demonstrate the high-precision capabilities of a large complex mass measurement system with expected overall uncertainties on the order of 3 parts in 10^8.

The Measurement of the Local Acceleration of Gravity for the NIST4 Watt Balance

August 24, 2014
Author(s)
David B. Newell, Jacques Liard, Leon S. Chao, Yusi A. Cao, Frank C. Seifert, Darine El Haddad, Jon R. Pratt, Stephan Schlamminger
A new watt balance is being constructed at NIST in preparation for the redefinition of the International System of Units and the realization of mass through an exact value of the Planck constant. We describe the procedures used and give results for the

Construction of a watt balance with the aim to realize the kilogram at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

August 1, 2014
Author(s)
Darine El Haddad, Leon Chao, Frank Seifert, David B. Newell, Jon R. Pratt, Stephan Schlamminger
A redefinition of the International System of Units, the SI, is impending and could occur as early as 2017. After redefinition a means to realize the unit of mass is required. A watt balance is a promising device to realize the unit of mass at the kilogram