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Displaying 1 - 25 of 54776

Wind-Driven Fire Spread to a Structure from Fences and Mulch

August 10, 2022
Author(s)
Kathryn Butler, Erik L. Johnsson, Alexander Maranghides, Shonali Nazare, Marco G. Fernandez, Rachel McIntyre, William Saar, Mariusz Zarzecki, Wei Tang, Eric Auth, Michael Pryor, Colin McLaughlin
A series of field experiments was conducted to examine the effects on fire spread toward a structure for combustible fences and mulch under conditions that may be encountered in a wildland-urban interface (WUI) fire. The fire behavior of a variety of

A constant pressure flowmeter for the extremely high vacuum

August 9, 2022
Author(s)
Stephen Eckel, Daniel Barker, James A. Fedchak, Emmanuel Newsome, Julia Scherschligt, Robert E. Vest
We demonstrate operation of a constant-pressure flowmeter capable of generating and accurately measuring flows as low as $1\times10^-13}$mol/s. Generation of such small flows is accomplished by using a small conductance element with $C\approx 25$nL/s

Business Recovery from Disasters: Lessons from Natural Hazards and the COVID-19 Pandemic

August 9, 2022
Author(s)
Stephanie Chang, Charlotte Brown, John Handmer, Jennifer Helgeson, Yoshio Kajitani, Adriana Keating, Ilan Noy, Maria Watson, Sahar Derakhshan, Juri Kim, Alfredo Roa Henriquez
This paper compares economic recovery in the COVID-19 pandemic with other types of disasters, at the scale of businesses. As countries around the world struggle to emerge from the pandemic, studies of business impact and recovery have proliferated; however

Oxygen-Limited Fires Inside Under-Ventilated Enclosures (OLIVE-FIRE)

August 9, 2022
Author(s)
Kevin B. McGrattan, Isaac Leventon
This report documents a series of fire experiments performed within steel electrical enclosures. The objective is to validate a simple empirical model that predicts the maximum heat release rate of a fire within a closed compartment as a function of its

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of Carbonated Hydroxyapatite Synthesized through Calcium Phosphate Cements

August 5, 2022
Author(s)
Alline F. Myers, Shozo Takagi, Stanislav Frukhtbeyn, Laurence Chow, Veronika Szalai, Lonnie Cumberland, Ileana Pazos, Eaman Karim
Ionizing radiation-induced paramagnetic defects in calcified tissues like tooth enamel are indicators of irradiation dose. Hydroxyapatite (HA), the principal constituent in these materials, incorporates a variety of anions (CO32, F, Cl, SiO44 ) and

The kilogram: inertial or gravitational mass?

August 5, 2022
Author(s)
Stephan Schlamminger, Giovanni Mana
The redefinition of the international system of units fixes the values of the unperturbed ground state hyperfine transition frequency of the $^133}$Cs atom, speed of light in vacuum, and Planck constant. Therefore, differently from the past, the kilogram

D-to-A_eff converter

August 1, 2022
Author(s)
Patrick Egan, Eric S. Stanfield, John R. Stoup
Recent developments in diameter metrology at NIST have enabled the dimensional characterization of piston-cylinder assemblies (PCA) with unprecedented precision. For the newest generation of PCA, standard uncertainty on measurement of outer diameter is 12

Levels and profiles of perfluorinated alkyl acids in liver tissues of birds with different habitat types and trophic levels from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea

August 1, 2022
Author(s)
Sang Hee Hong, Jessica L. Reiner, Mi Jang, Stacy Schuur, Gi Myung Han, John Kucklick, Won Joon Shim
Contamination status and characteristics of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) including perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) was examined using liver tissue of birds - blacktailed gulls (Larus crassirostris)

Shrinks When It's Colder

August 1, 2022
Author(s)
Patrick Egan
Thermal expansion can be a leading cause of uncertainty in length metrology. A cell-based refractometer has been designed at NIST which targets 10^-6} relative uncertainty in the measurement of helium refractivity; in terms of refractive index at ambient

Single-atom trapping in a metasurface-lens optical tweezer

August 1, 2022
Author(s)
Ting-Wei Hsu, Wenqi Zhu, Tobias Thiele, Mark Brown, Scott Papp, Amit Agrawal, Cindy Regal
Single neutral atoms in optical tweezers have become an important platform for quantum simulation, computing, and metrology [1-3]. With ground-up control similar to trapped ions, individual atoms can be prepared and entangled [2, 4, 5], and the scalability

Certification of Standard Reference Material(R) 1568c Rice Flour

July 29, 2022
Author(s)
Chuck Barber, Colleen E. Bryan Sallee, Monique Johnson, Shaun Kotoski, Rick L. Paul, Nicholas Sharp, Maria Isabel Vega Martinez, James H. Yen, Lee L. Yu, Laura Wood, John Sieber, Stephen Long
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recently released SRM 1568c Rice Flour which has value assignments for over 30 analytes, including arsenic species. This material is intended to be used for the evaluation of methods for the

Fracture Toughness Tests at 77 K and 4 K on 316L Stainless Steel Welded Plates

July 29, 2022
Author(s)
Jake Benzing, Nicholas Derimow, Enrico Lucon, Dash Weeks
In the framework of a collaborative project between ASME, NASA, and NIST, quasi-static fracture toughness tests have been performed at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K, or -196 °C) and liquid helium temperature (4 K, or -269 °C) on weld specimens

How to Report and Benchmark Emerging Field-Effect Transistors

July 29, 2022
Author(s)
Zhihui Cheng, Chin-Sheng Pan, Peiqi Wang, Yanqing Wu, Davood Shahrjerdi, Iuliana Radu, Max Lemme, Lian-Mao Peng, Xiangfeng Duan, Zhihong Chen, Joerg Appenzeller, Steven Koester, Eric Pop, Aaron Franklin, Curt A. Richter
Emerging low-dimensional nanomaterials have been studied for decades in device applications as field-effect transistors (FETs). However, properly reporting and comparing device performance has been challenging due to the involvement and interlinking of

Unique collaboration produces LM-92 UV LED testing standard

July 27, 2022
Author(s)
C Cameron Miller, Jeff Hulett, Troy Cowan
JEFF HULETT, CAMERON MILLER, and TROY COWAN detail the importance of cross-organization participation in UV standards development and how those joint efforts will further market penetration and performance of GUV devices.
Displaying 1 - 25 of 54776