Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Risk Management for Replication Devices



Kelley L. Dempsey, Celia Paulsen


This publication provides guidance on protecting the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information processed, stored, or transmitted on replication devices (RDs). It suggests appropriate countermeasures in the context of the System Development Life Cycle. A security risk assessment template in table and flowchart format is also provided to help organizations determine the risk associated with replication devices.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 8023
Report Number


3D printers, 3D scanners, copiers, countermeasures, exploits, mitigation, multifunction devices, printers, replication devices, risk, risk assessment, risk management, scanners, security controls, threats, vulnerabilities


Dempsey, K. and Paulsen, C. (2015), Risk Management for Replication Devices, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed April 14, 2024)
Created February 22, 2015, Updated October 12, 2021