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Review of Refrigerants Evolution



Piotr A. Domanski, Mark O. McLinden, Andrei F. Kazakov, J S. Brown, Riccardo Brignoli, Jaehyeok Heo, Janusz Wojtusiak


The presentation discusses the application of refrigerants from the beginnings of ‘artificial cold’ in the era of industrial revolution to the currently used fluids, and the refrigerant options in response to environmental concerns. The outlook for new-generation refrigerants having a low global warming potential (GWP) is examined based on the finding from a NIST study. The search for suitable refrigerants relied on screening of a comprehensive database using filters of environmental acceptance, chemical stability in the system, low toxicity, coefficient of performance (COP), volumetric capacity (Qvol), and flammability. Among different screening steps, the performance potential (COP and Qvol) of the candidate fluids was assessed using a simulation model that included both thermodynamic and transport properties, and heat exchangers with optimized refrigerant circuitry. The study showed that the low-GWP refrigerant options are very limited, particularly for fluids with volumetric capacities similar to those of R-410A and R-404A. The identified fluids with good COP and low toxicity are at least mildly flammable. The probability of finding better-performing low-GWP fluids is minimal.
Proceedings Title
13th IIR G. Lorentzen Conference of Natural Refrigerants
Conference Dates
June 18-20, 2018
Conference Location


air conditioning, global warming potential, heat pump, refrigerant, thermodynamics


Domanski, P. , McLinden, M. , Kazakov, A. , Brown, J. , Brignoli, R. , Heo, J. and Wojtusiak, J. (2018), Review of Refrigerants Evolution, 13th IIR G. Lorentzen Conference of Natural Refrigerants, Valencia, -1 (Accessed April 18, 2024)
Created June 20, 2018, Updated August 22, 2018