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Reference Correlations for the Density and Thermal Conductivity, and Review of the Viscosity Measurements, of Liquid Titanium, Zirconium, Hafnium, Vanadium, Niobium, Tantalum, Chromium, Molybdenum, and Tungsten

Published

Author(s)

Eleftheria Ntonti, Sofia Sotiriadou, Marc Assael, Marcia L. Huber, Boris Wilthan, Manabu Watanabe

Abstract

The available experimental data for the density, thermal conductivity, and viscosity of liquid titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten have been critically examined with the intention of establishing reference correlations. All experimental data have been categorized into primary and secondary data according to the quality of measurement, the technique employed and the presentation of the data, as specified by a series of criteria. In the case of the density, new reference correlations are proposed for liquid titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten, characterized by an expanded uncertainty (95 %) of 2.0 %, 2.1 %, 1.9 %, 2.2 %, 2.4 %, 2.6 %, 3.2 %, 2.1 % and 4.1 %, respectively. The thermal conductivity reference correlations for the aforementioned liquid metals, except liquid chromium, are characterized by an expanded uncertainty (95 %) of 14.3 %, 8.4 %, 6.1 %, 11.4 %, 7.6 %, 4.0 %, 4.6 %, and 5.1 %, respectively. Finally, in the case of the viscosity, a review of the available literature shows very large deviations between data from authors for liquid titanium and zirconium, as well as a lack of measurements for the remaining melts. Hence, it is not justified to propose any kind of correlation for those cases.
Citation
International Journal of Thermophysics
Volume
45

Keywords

chromium, density, hafnium, liquid metals, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, thermal conductivity, tungsten, zirconium, vanadium, viscosity

Citation

Ntonti, E. , Sotiriadou, S. , Assael, M. , Huber, M. , Wilthan, B. and Watanabe, M. (2024), Reference Correlations for the Density and Thermal Conductivity, and Review of the Viscosity Measurements, of Liquid Titanium, Zirconium, Hafnium, Vanadium, Niobium, Tantalum, Chromium, Molybdenum, and Tungsten, International Journal of Thermophysics, [online], https://doi.org/10.1007/s10765-023-03305-z, https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=956945 (Accessed April 17, 2024)
Created January 22, 2024, Updated February 13, 2024