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Real-Time Monitoring of Total Inward Leakage of Respiratory Equipment Used by Emergency responders: Workshop Proceedings



Kathryn M. Butler, Marc R. Nyden, Rodney A. Bryant


A workshop on respirator sensors was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on May 1, 2009. The objective of this workshop was to discuss and document the need for real-time monitoring of the respiratory intake of emergency responders; to identify appropriate sensing technologies; and to initiate the development of a scientific strategy (employing both modeling and experimental validation) to determine optimal implementation of respirator sensors. This workshop was attended by about 25 people from academia, government agencies, industry, and the fire service. Collectively, they had expertise in the areas of chemical detection, occupational health and safety, firefighting technology, fluid flow, and fire protection engineering. Speakers gave eleven presentations in three sections that addressed the needs of firefighters, reviewed the state of sensor technology, and stated the challenges posed by the integration of this technology into SCBA respirators. At the conclusion of each of these sections, the participants offered their thoughts and comments. This report presents the knowledge gained from this workshop and our analysis of the scientific and engineering challenges involved in the development and implementation of respirator sensors. The report is structured by the three sections of the workshop: First Responder Needs and Concerns, Sensor Technologies, and Sensor Integration and Engineering. In each section, descriptions of each talk are followed by the points covered in the discussion among workshop attendees. The presentations themselves are provided in the appendices.
Special Publication (NIST SP) - 1113
Report Number


respirators, sensors, real-time monitoring, firefighting


Butler, K. , Nyden, M. and Bryant, R. (2010), Real-Time Monitoring of Total Inward Leakage of Respiratory Equipment Used by Emergency responders: Workshop Proceedings, Special Publication (NIST SP), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed May 25, 2024)


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Created September 27, 2010, Updated November 10, 2018