Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Raman and electron microscopy analysis of carbon nanotubes exposed to high power laser irradiance



John H. Lehman, Christopher L. Cromer, Krishna Ramadurai, Roop Mahajan, Anne Dillon


High power laser radiometry requires efficient and damage-resistant detectors. The current study explores the evolving nature of carbon nanotube coatings for such detectors upon their exposure to incrementally increasing laser power levels. Electron microscopy images along with the D-band to G-band intensity ratios from the Raman spectra from eight irradiance levels are used to evaluate changes before and after the exposure. Electron microscopy images of the exposed multiwalled carbon nanotubes revealed the formation of intermittent pockets of moundlike structures at high power densities exceeding 11 kW/cm2. Raman spectroscopy measurements also demonstrated higher values for the ratio of the D-band intensity to that of the G-band, suggesting the possible transformation of nanotubes into structurally different forms of carbon. Exposure to a sample of single-walled nanotubes did not demonstrate the evolution of structural changes, which could be due in part to the higher irradiance levels relative to the damage threshold, employed in the experiment.
Journal of Applied Physics


carbon nanotube, electron microscopy, laser damage, Raman spectroscopy, thermal detector


Lehman, J. , Cromer, C. , Ramadurai, K. , Mahajan, R. and Dillon, A. (2009), Raman and electron microscopy analysis of carbon nanotubes exposed to high power laser irradiance, Journal of Applied Physics, [online], (Accessed June 12, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created May 5, 2009, Updated February 19, 2017