Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Quantitative Analysis of Oxidation State in Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials



Christopher Sims, Russell Maier, Aaron Johnston-Peck, Justin Gorham, Vincent A. Hackley, Bryant C. Nelson


Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are receiving increased attention from the research community due to the large number and wide range of their current and potential applications. The attractiveness of nanoceria for these various applications is rooted in their unique chemical properties, most prominent of which is their ability to alternate between the Ce3+ and Ce4+ oxidation states. While many analytical techniques and methods have been used to characterize the amounts of Ce3+ and Ce4+ present (Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio) within nanoceria materials, very few studies have utilized multiple complementary analytical tools (orthogonal analysis) with technique-independent oxidation state controls for quantitative determinations of the Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio. Use of technique-independent control samples should improve the comparison of oxidation state measurements across a wide range of analytical techniques. Here, we utilize electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to orthogonally characterize the oxidation states of a suite of commercially available nanoceria materials using technique-independent Ce3+ and Ce4+ controls. Similarities and differences between analytical results are discussed in the context of the products analyzed.
Proceedings Title
Technical Proceedings of the 2017 TechConnect World, including the Nanotech 2017 Conference
Conference Dates
May 14-17, 2017
Conference Location
Washington, DC, US


ceria nanoparticles, characterization, oxidation state, orthogonal analysis


Sims, C. , Maier, R. , Johnston-Peck, A. , Gorham, J. , Hackley, V. and Nelson, B. (2017), Quantitative Analysis of Oxidation State in Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials, Technical Proceedings of the 2017 TechConnect World, including the Nanotech 2017 Conference, Washington, DC, US, [online], (Accessed July 17, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created May 14, 2017, Updated April 7, 2022