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pyLLE: a Fast and User Friendly Lugiato-Lefever Equation Solver



Gregory T. Moille, Qing Li, Xiyuan Lu, Kartik Srinivasan


The Lugiato-Lefever Equation (LLE), first developed to provide a description of spatial dissipative structures in optical systems, has recently made a significant impact in the integrated photonics community, where it has been adopted to help understand and predict Kerr- mediated nonlinear optical phenomena such as parametric frequency comb generation inside microresonators. The LLE is essentially an application of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) to a damped, driven Kerr nonlinear resonator, so that a periodic boundary condition is applied. Importantly, a slow-varying time envelope is stipulated, resulting in a mean-field solution in which the field does not vary within a round trip. This constraint, which differentiates the LLE from the more general Ikeda map, significantly simplifies calculations while still providing excellent physical representation for a wide variety of systems. In particular, simulations based on the LLE formalism have enabled modeling that quantitatively agrees with reported experimental results on microcomb generation (e.g., in terms of spectral bandwidth), and have also been central to theoretical studies that have provided better insight into novel nonlinear dynamics that can be supported by Kerr nonlinear microresonators. The great potential of microresonator frequency combs (microcombs) in a wide variety of applications suggests the need for efficient and widely accessible computational tools to more rapidly further their development. Although LLE simulations are commonly performed by research groups working in the field, to our knowledge no free software package for solving this equation in an easy and fast way is currently available. Here, we introduce pyLLE, an open-source LLE solver for microcomb modeling. It combines the user-friendliness of the Python programming language and the computational power of the Julia programming language.
Journal of Research (NIST JRES) -


Julia, micro-combs, non-linear optics, python


Moille, G. , Li, Q. , Lu, X. and Srinivasan, K. (2019), pyLLE: a Fast and User Friendly Lugiato-Lefever Equation Solver, Journal of Research (NIST JRES), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed June 16, 2024)


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Created May 23, 2019, Updated March 1, 2021