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Proposed UNIFORMAT II Classification of Bridge Elements



Muthiah Kasi, Robert E. Chapman


This report presents a proposed UNIFORMAT II classification of bridge elements. Elemental classifications differ from traditional product-related classifications because their core concept is an element that performs a given function, regardless of the design specification, construction method, or materials used. The proposed classification represents a major revision and restructuring of ASTM Standard Classification E 2103, a bridge-related standard classification first issued by ASTM in 2000. The original bridge classification, E 2103, differed from the UNIFORMAT II elemental classification hierarchy in several ways which limited its applicability. The major revisions to E 2103 described in this report will promote its relevance, understanding, and acceptance in the bridge industry. Once approved and reissued by ASTM, the UNIFORMAT II Standard Classification of Bridge Elements, E 2103, will provide the basis for a comprehensive data set of bridge-related costs that will enable public and private decision makers to choose more cost-effective solutions for the design and construction of new bridges and the maintenance and repair of existing bridges across the Nation.
Special Publication (NIST SP) - 1122
Report Number


Bridges, construction, cost estimation, economic analysis, functional elements, life-cycle cost, risk analysis, standards, UNIFORMAT II, value engineering


Kasi, M. and Chapman, R. (2011), Proposed UNIFORMAT II Classification of Bridge Elements, Special Publication (NIST SP), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed June 20, 2024)


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Created June 9, 2011, Updated October 12, 2021