Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Propane Gas Fire Experiments in Residential Scale Structures



Joseph M. Willi


Nine full-scale fire experiments were conducted in two residential-scale structures to study how different fire fighting tactics, specifically horizontal, vertical, and positive pressure ventilation, affect the fire environment within a structure. The fire source for each experiment was provided by three propane burners. Five of the tests were conducted in a structure designed to simulate a single-story residential structure, and four of the tests were conducted in a structure designed to simulate a two-story residential structure. The structures were instrumented with sensors to collect local measurements of temperature, gas velocity, heat flux, and gas concentrations at various locations during the experiments. Different doors and vents were opened and closed during the tests to simulate horizontal and vertical ventilation. A PPV fan was also used during some of the experiments to further affect the ventilation conditions. This report contains detailed descriptions of the setup and procedure used for each of the nine experiments.
Technical Note (NIST TN) - 1953
Report Number


Willi, J. (2017), Propane Gas Fire Experiments in Residential Scale Structures, Technical Note (NIST TN), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed May 21, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created February 27, 2017, Updated November 10, 2018