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Proceedings of the Cybersecurity for Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM) Symposium



Celia Paulsen


Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM) involves fabricating physical objects from a data file using computer-controlled processes with little to no human intervention. It includes Additive Manufacturing (AM), 3D printing, rapid prototyping, etcetera. The technology is advancing rapidly and has the potential to significantly change traditional manufacturing and supply chain industries, including for information and communication technologies (ICT). On February 3, 2015, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Information Technology Laboratory (ITL) Computer Security Division hosted a one-day symposium to explore cybersecurity needed for DDM, to include ensuring the protection of intellectual property and the integrity of printers, elements being printed, and design data. Speakers and attendees from industry, academia, and government discussed the state of the industry, cybersecurity risks and solutions, and implications for Information and Communications Technology (ICT) supply chain risk management.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 8041
Report Number


3D Printing, Additive Manufacturing, cyber-physical systems, cybersecurity, Direct Digital Manufacturing, industrial control systems, information security


Paulsen, C. (2015), Proceedings of the Cybersecurity for Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM) Symposium, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed April 12, 2024)
Created April 10, 2015, Updated November 10, 2018