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Preparation of Nanoscale TiO2 Dispersions in an Environmental Matrix for Eco-Toxicological Assessment



Julian S. Taurozzi, Vincent A. Hackley, Mark R. Wiesner


Toxicity and fate assessment are key elements in the evaluation of the environmental, health and safety risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). While significant effort and resources have been devoted to the toxicological evaluation of many ENMs, including nanoscale TiO2, obtaining conclusive and reproducible results continues to be a challenge. This can be traced in part to the lack of standardized dispersion protocols and the inconsistent application of dispersion procedures in relevant biological and environmental matrices. In order to address these issues, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) jointly with the Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEINT) have developed a series of standardized and validated protocols for the dispersion of ENMs from a powdered material source for both human health and environmental testing applications. This protocol has been developed and validated using NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1898. SRM 1898 consists of a widely studied and industrially relevant TiO2 nanomaterial with broad commercial penetration and a production history dating back several decades.
Special Publication (NIST SP) - 1200-5r1
Report Number


nanomaterial, titanium dioxide, dispersion, toxicity, protocol, sample preparation, hard water


Taurozzi, J. , Hackley, V. and Wiesner, M. (2013), Preparation of Nanoscale TiO2 Dispersions in an Environmental Matrix for Eco-Toxicological Assessment, Special Publication (NIST SP), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed May 19, 2024)


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Created June 2, 2013, Updated October 14, 2021