Polydimethylsiloxane tissue-mimicking phantoms for quantitative optical medical imaging standards
Jeeseong Hwang, Hyun J. Kim, Paul Lemaillet, Dirk Grosenick, Thomas Gladytz, David McClatchy III, Kimberly A. Briggman, Brian Pogue
We report on a procedure to build and characterize solid tissue-mimicking phantoms of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers. Controlled inclusion of light scattering titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles enables the creation of phantoms having tunable light scattering properties with reduced scattering coefficients consistent across different measurement platforms including a double integrating sphere and a time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopic system. Backscatter confocal microscopy is also used to characterize the shape and distribution of included TiO2 particles. The double integrating sphere and time-resolved diffuse spectroscopy were used to measure the reduced scattering coefficients of the phantoms. The results across different systems are in good agreement, suggesting that the PDMS/TiO2 composite is a promising tissue-mimicking material for developing standards useful to validate measurements by different devices for multi-platform and multi-laboratory tests.