Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Performance Testing of Alternative Blowing Agents for Foam Insulation of Residential Water Heaters

Published

Author(s)

Arthur H. Fanney, Robert R. Zarr

Abstract

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has requested the assistance of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct analyses to determine if the energy efficiency requirements for electric, gas- and oil-fired residential water heaters should be revised. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute.) The performance of residential water heaters is measured by the Energy Factor (EF), a metric which accounts for both the efficiency of energy transfer to the water and the heat losses from the stored hot water to the environment. Residential water heaters are typically manufactured with 1 to 2 inches of foam insulation blown into the jacket with hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) such as HCFC-141b. The insulation reduces the heat losses from the storage tank of the water heater, thus playing a role in meeting the DOE energy factor requirements. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol on ozone-depleting substances, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has scheduled the phase-out of HCFC-141b for January 1, 2003. Several alternatives are being evaluated for blowing foam insulation. Examples of alternative materials being considered include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) such as HFC-245fa, HFC-356mffm, HFC-134a; cyclopentane; or water-based foams. Because there is little data on the performance of these foams in residential water heater applications, DOE initiated a study to evaluate their comparative performance. This paper reports on the details of the testing and evaluation of water heater performance using the alternative foam blowing agents. The results of this study are being used by DOE to evaluate the engineering and cost effectiveness of using alternative foam blowing agents for insulating water heaters in its revision of the residential water heater energy efficiency standards.
Proceedings Title
Proceedings of the 1999 Appliance Manufacturer Conference and Exposition (AMCE)
Conference Dates
September 27-29, 1999
Conference Title
Appliance Manufacturer

Keywords

efficiency, energy, heat loss, insulation, measurement, residential, testing, thermal conductivity, water heater

Citation

Fanney, A. and Zarr, R. (1999), Performance Testing of Alternative Blowing Agents for Foam Insulation of Residential Water Heaters, Proceedings of the 1999 Appliance Manufacturer Conference and Exposition (AMCE) (Accessed March 5, 2024)
Created November 1, 1999, Updated February 19, 2017