Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Peak Deviation from Prediction in Atomic Clocks



Marc A. Weiss, A Masarie, Ron Beard


Results from a preliminary study of two GPS clocks tested on the ground show that the distribution of peak deviations from prediction cannot be assumed to be Gaussian. The standards are identical to models on board GPS block IIR satellites. The data were taken at the Naval Research Laboratory in the U.S. during life tests. We propose here two statistics that could be used to characterize peak deviation from prediction, preliminarily named PDIS and PTIE.
Proceedings Title
Proc. 2007 Joint Mtg. IEEE Intl. Freq. Cont. Symp. and EFTF Conf.
Conference Dates
May 29-June 1, 2007
Conference Location


Allan deviation, GPS clocks, Hadamard deviation, optimal prediction, peak deviation


Weiss, M. , Masarie, A. and Beard, R. (2007), Peak Deviation from Prediction in Atomic Clocks, Proc. 2007 Joint Mtg. IEEE Intl. Freq. Cont. Symp. and EFTF Conf., Geneva, , [online], (Accessed June 20, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created May 29, 2007, Updated February 17, 2017