Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Non-Resonant Valence-to-Core X-ray Emission Spectroscopy of Niobium



Bruce D. Ravel, A. J. Kropf, Dali Yang, Mengen Wang, Mehmet Topsokal, Deyu Lu, M. C. Stennett, N. C. Hyatt


The valence-to-core (V2C) portion of X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) measures the electron 15 states close to the Fermi level. These states are involved in bonding, thus provide a measure of the 16 chemistry of the material. In this manuscript, we show the V2C XES spectra for several niobium compounds. The K'' peak in the V2C XES results from the transition of a ligand 1s electron into 18 the 1s core-hole of the niobium, a transition allowed by hybridization with the niobium 4p. This 19 location in energy of this weak peak shows a strong ligand dependence, thus providing a sensitive 20 probe of the ligand environment about the niobium.
Physical Review B


X-ray emission spectroscopy, density functional theory
Created March 23, 2018, Updated November 10, 2018