This article describes the under taking by Technology Services to assess the impact of standards on global competitiveness and innovation. . It also reflects the results of a survey that canvassed the National Institute of Standards and Technology s (NIST) Operating Units (OUs) for instances where NIST has played an active role in the development or implementation of documentary standards with broad adoption and significant positive economic or social benefits. The results of the canvassing effort identified 55 documentary standards efforts that either had a significant economic or social impact. The most common impact identified was increased market share. A common theme of the standards efforts documented was NIST support for testing and conformity assessment activities associated with the standards. Other NIST contributions included: conducting research which formed the basis of the standard; working cooperatively with industry to establish appropriate requirements; and developing applicable software. International participation was present in 42 percent of the cases. Continuing to focus standards development efforts in key technologies will support U.S. innovation and competitiveness and help U.S. technology and standards gain global acceptance.