Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

NIST Standard Bullets and Casings Project



Jun-Feng Song, Theodore V. Vorburger, Susan M. Ballou, Thomas Brian Renegar, Li Ma, Eric P. Whitenton, David R. Kelley, Robert A. Clary, A Zheng, M Ols


The National INstitute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard bullets and casings project will provide support to firearm examiners and to the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) in the United States. The standard bullet is designed as both a virtual and a physical bullet signature standard. The virtual standard is a set of six digitized bullet signatures originally profiled from six master bullets fired at the bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). By using the virtual signature standard to control the tool path on a numerically controlled (NC) diamond turnign machine, 40 standard bullets were produced. Based on the NIST proposed parameter and algorithm, a bullet signature measurement system was established for bullet signature measurements of the standard bullets. Initial measurement results showed high reproducibility for both the measurement system and the standard bullets. A traceability scheme has been proposed to establish the measurement traceability for nationwide bullet signature measurements to NIST, ATF and FBI. Prototype standard casings have also been developed.
Proceedings Title
Proceedings of 2007 ASPE
Conference Dates
October 14-19, 2007
Conference Location
Dallas, TX, USA
Conference Title
2007 ASPE


ballistics, bullet signature, reference material, RM, standard bullet, standard casing, traceability


Song, J. , Vorburger, T. , Ballou, S. , Renegar, T. , Ma, L. , Whitenton, E. , Kelley, D. , Clary, R. , Zheng, A. and Ols, M. (2007), NIST Standard Bullets and Casings Project, Proceedings of 2007 ASPE, Dallas, TX, USA (Accessed June 17, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created December 31, 2006, Updated October 12, 2021