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A New Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique For Growing Thin Films of Ti, TiN on Copper and TiO2, TixSiy on Silicon



Jay H. Hendricks, M I. Aquino-Class, Michael R. Zachariah


In this paper, we present a process which has the benefits of operating at lower temperatures than conventional CVD, that uses low cost precursors, and produces only environmentally benign byproducts. This new method fordepositing Ti, TiN, TiO2, and TixSiy thin films has been demonstrated using a coflow diffusion reactor to react Na metal vapor with TiCl4 as described by the following equation: 4Na(g) +TiCl4(g) ---Ar--->Ti(s) +4NaCl(g). In this reaction, sodium strips chlorine from titanium tetrachloride freeing titanium metal to grow into a thin film on a substrate placed in the reaction zone. TiN and TiO2 films were produced by the introduction of N2 gas or O2 gas into the reactor, respectively. Using this reaction chemistry, we have produced Ti and TiN thin films on Cu substrates at 610 C (considerably lower than the 900 C to 1200 C required for conventional thermal CVD of titanium) and TiO2 and titanium silicides (TixSiy) films on silicon substrates. Thermodynamics calculations indicated that this class of chemistry is generic and that a wide range of metals and ceramics could be grown using this process, and preliminary experiments suggest that TiC and SiC thin films can be grown with this processas well. The thin films were primarily analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy.
Proceedings Title
Materials Research Society Proceedings
Conference Dates
December 1-4, 1998
Conference Title
Materials Research Society


CVD, Silicon Carbide, Sodium, TiCl<sub>4</sub>, Titanium, Titanium Carbide, Titanium Dioxide, Titanium Nitride, Titanium Silicide


Hendricks, J. , Aquino-Class, M. and Zachariah, M. (1999), A New Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique For Growing Thin Films of Ti, TiN on Copper and TiO2, TixSiy on Silicon, Materials Research Society Proceedings (Accessed April 23, 2024)
Created December 1, 1999, Updated June 2, 2021