Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Nanoscale MOSFET as a potential Room-Temperature Quantum Current Source



Kin P. Cheung, Jason P. Campbell


Nanoscale metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) with only one defect at the interface can potentially become a single electron turnstile linking frequency and electronic charge to realize the elusive quantized current source. Charge pumping is often described as a process which ‘pumps’ one charge per driving period per defect. The precision needed to utilize this charge pumping mechanism as a quantized current source requires a rigorous demonstration of the basic charge pumping mechanism. Here we present experimental results on a single-defect MOSFET which show that the one charge pumped per cycle mechanism is valid. This validity is also discussed through a variety of physical arguments which enrich the current understanding of charge pumping. The known sources of errors as well as potential sources of error are also discussed. The precision of such a process is sufficient to encourage further exploration of charge pumping based quantum current sources.


nanoscale, mosfet, quantum current


Cheung, K. and Campbell, J. (2020), Nanoscale MOSFET as a potential Room-Temperature Quantum Current Source, Micromachines, [online], (Accessed April 13, 2024)
Created March 31, 2020, Updated June 2, 2020