Nanoparticle manufacturing heterogeneity through processes to products
Samuel M. Stavis, Jeffrey A. Fagan, Michael Stopa, James A. Liddle
Commercial products are now making use of the unique properties of nanoscale particles. However, common challenges of making nanoparticles into products still limit their impact. In this article, we review recent advances in nanoparticle manufacturing in liquids, clarifying the similarities between different processes and products at a system level. Our integrative survey emphasizes the fundamental challenge of heterogeneity, which propagates through manufacturing processes and increases the cost of quality control. We also consider the central constraint of production scale, external costs of safety and sustainability, and technology transfer from the laboratory to the market. We review applications of nanoparticles in nanocomposite materials, healthcare and medicine, electronics and photonics, and energy and the environment, and conclude with a summary of the critical issues.