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Modeling the Evacuation of the World Trade Center Towers on September 11, 2001



Erica D. Kuligowski, Richard D. Peacock, Jason D. Averill


This paper provides an analysis of the evacuation of the World Trade Center towers culled from telephone and face-to-face interviews with survivors. A decedent analysis explores where occupants were located when each tower was attacked. Multiple regression models were built to explore the sources of evacuation initiation delay (why people did not immediately start to leave the building), as well as stairwell evacuation time (how long the average occupant spent in the stairwells per floor). Issues identified as contributing to either slowing or aiding the evacuation process were explored.
Journal of Fire Protection Engineering


building fires, egress, egress modeling, emergency communication, evacuation, human behavior, interviews, World Trade Center


Kuligowski, E. , Peacock, R. and Averill, J. (2013), Modeling the Evacuation of the World Trade Center Towers on September 11, 2001, Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, [online], (Accessed June 17, 2024)


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Created January 31, 2013, Updated November 10, 2018