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The Model Based Enterprise: A Literature Review of Costs and Benefits for Discrete Manufacturing



Douglas Thomas


Currently, there is a limited understanding of the costs related to suboptimal design and production information. There is incomplete information on how engineers and other staff use their time. Additionally, the rate and cause of defective or deficient products is not tracked at the industry level. The frequency and impact of low-quality design data on product research and development is not clear. Further, it isn't clear to what extent improved process modeling can improve efficiency. This report focuses on the costs and losses associated with inadequate design/modeling information and data in discrete manufacturing. This includes: (1) Product models (e.g., CAD/CAM); (2) Simulation models of manufacturing processes; (3) Interoperability between software platforms. Design data has significant relevance to discrete medium-tech and high-tech manufacturing, which includes production of machinery, computers, electronics, and transportation equipment.
Advanced Manufacturing Series (NIST AMS) - 100-26
Report Number


model, economics, manufacturing, simulation, cost, interoperability


Thomas, D. (2019), The Model Based Enterprise: A Literature Review of Costs and Benefits for Discrete Manufacturing, Advanced Manufacturing Series (NIST AMS), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed July 20, 2024)


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Created July 24, 2019, Updated June 24, 2021