Metallurgical and mechanical analyses were performed on steel and rivet samples recovered from the wreck of the RMS Titanic. It was found that the steel possessed a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature that was very high for this type of steel, making the material brittle at ice water temperatures. This has been attributed to both chemical and microstructural factors. It has also been found that the wrought iron rivets used in the construction of Titanic contained an elevated amount of incorporated slag, and that the orientation of the slag within the rivets may hold an explanation for how the ship accumulated damage during its encounter with the iceberg.
Metallurgy of the RMS Titanic, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=852863
(Accessed February 22, 2024)