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Measurement of the Rheological Properties of High Performance Concrete: State of the Art Report



Chiara F. Ferraris


The rheological or flow properties of concrete in general and of high performance concrete (HPC) in particular, are important because many factors such as ease of placement, consolidation, durability, and strength depend on the flow properties. Concrete that is not properly consolidated may have defects such as honeycombs, air voids, and aggregate segregation. Such an important performance attribute has triggered the design of numerous test methods. Generally, the flow behavior of concrete approximates that of a Bingham fluid. Therefore, at least two parameters, yield stress and viscosity, are necessary to characterize the flow. Nevertheless, most methods measure only one parameter. Predictions of the flow properties of concrete from its composition or from the properties of its components are not easy. No general model exists, although some attempts have been made. This paper gives an overview of the flow properties of a fluid or a suspension, followed by a critical review of the most commonly used concrete rheology tests. Particular attention is given to tests that could be used for HPC. Tentative definitions of terms such as workability, consistency, and rheological parameters are provided. An overview of the most promising tests and models for cement paste is given.
Journal of Research (NIST JRES) -
No. 5


concrete, flow properties, mortar, rheological measurements, rheological models, rheology, suspension, test methods, workability


Ferraris, C. (1999), Measurement of the Rheological Properties of High Performance Concrete: State of the Art Report, Journal of Research (NIST JRES), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (Accessed April 24, 2024)
Created October 1, 1999, Updated February 19, 2017