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Measurement and Evaluation of Visibility Experiments for Powered Industrial Vehicles



Roger V. Bostelman, Li Peng Liang


Powered Industrial Vehicles, such as forklifts, are widely used in manufacturing and other industries. The National Institute of Standards and Technology's Intelligent System Division has been researching advanced 2D and 3D imaging sensors and their use towards improving both automated and manned forklift safety. To enhance forklift safety, an operator's visibility from powered industrial vehicles is required to meet certain criteria specified by standards. ANSI/ITSDF B56.5, ANSI/ITSDF B56.11.6 and ISO/DIS 13564-1 Standards require measurement and evaluation of Visibility from powered industrial vehicles. Visibility of a forklift was evaluated at NIST by following the above ANSI and ISO standards through 11 visibility tests which set criteria based on the patterns of shadows cast when the forklift does not carry any load. Also, new test methods were created and tested. The new test methods were based on the forklift carrying loads and using a mannequin and standard sized test pieces. The NIST experiments, tests methods and results are detailed in this report. This report will then serve as a basis for follow on semi-automated powered industrial vehicle safety performance measurements and test methods.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 7837
Report Number


ANSI/ITSDF B56 standards, visibility, powered industrial vehicles, forklift, safety, ISO 13564-1 recommendations


Bostelman, R. and , L. (2011), Measurement and Evaluation of Visibility Experiments for Powered Industrial Vehicles, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed April 23, 2024)
Created December 16, 2011, Updated November 10, 2018