Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Markup Instructions for Extended Friction Ridge Features



Melissa Taylor, Will Chapman, Austin Hicklin, George Kiebuzinski, Peter Komarinski, John Mayer-Splain, Rachel Wallner


This document provides instructions for latent print examiners in marking friction ridge features to maximize consistency among examiners. This document builds upon the Extended Feature Set (EFS) defined in American National Standards Institute/National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory (ANSI/NIST-ITL) standard entitled "American National Standard for Information Systems: Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint, Facial & Other Biometric Information" (ANSI/NIST-ITL 1-2011). These instructions include examples and specific guidance for latent print examiners and minimize references to technical details of the file format.
Special Publication (NIST SP) - 1151
Report Number


AFIS, latent print, fingerprint, palmprint, forensic science, interoperability, forensics


Taylor, M. , Chapman, W. , Hicklin, A. , Kiebuzinski, G. , Komarinski, P. , Mayer-Splain, J. and Wallner, R. (2013), Markup Instructions for Extended Friction Ridge Features, Special Publication (NIST SP), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed April 17, 2024)
Created February 4, 2013, Updated November 10, 2018