Limestone Fillers to Conserve Cement in Low w/cm Concretes: An Analysis Based on Powers Model
Dale P. Bentz
Green concrete has become a rallying cry for the 21st century. In addition to field performance, concrete mixtures are now also judged by their energy consumption, carbon dioxide production, and waste stream utilization. While this problem is being attacked from many vantage points, perhaps one under-recognized opportunity is the replacement of a portion of the cement by an effectively inert filler in lower water-tocement ratio (w/c) concretes. Although it is recognized and accepted that in many lower w/c concretes all of the cement is unable to hydrate due to space limitations and/or water deficiencies, much cement is still used each year in the role of a relatively expensive filler in these mixtures. Bonavetti et al.  have proposed that limestone powder substitution for cement makes perfect sense in these lower w/c concretes, saving money and energy and reducing carbon dioxide emissions.
Limestone Fillers to Conserve Cement in Low w/cm Concretes: An Analysis Based on Powers’ Model, Concrete International, [online], https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=923437
(Accessed December 2, 2023)