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Large Fires: Kuwait (NIST SP 995)



Daniel M. Madrzykowski, D. D. Evans, G A. Haynes


A series of measurements were made in the Al Mawqa/Al Ahmadi oil field region of Kuwait to explore the feasibility of assessing the heat release rate of individual well fires through flame height and thermal radiation measurements. The 12 fires measured ranged in calculated heat release rate from 90 to 2000 MW which correspond to flow rates of 240 m3 day (15000 bbl/day) to 4800 m3/day (30000 bbl/day). Based on these twelve burning well measurements, the estimated total flow from the 651 damaged wells, both burning and leaking in March, 1991, was 7,400,000 barrels/day which is only 20 percent greater than published NOAA estimates based on information from the Kuwait Oil Company.
Special Publication (NIST SP) - 995
Report Number


fire safety, fire research, well fires, heat release rate, flame height, thermal radiation, radiation measurements


Madrzykowski, D. , Evans, D. and Haynes, G. (2003), Large Fires: Kuwait (NIST SP 995), Special Publication (NIST SP), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed May 30, 2024)


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Created March 1, 2003, Updated February 19, 2017