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Investigation of the Effect of Artificial Internal Defects on the Tensile Behavior of Laser Powder Bed Fusion 17–4 Stainless Steel Samples: Simultaneous Tensile Testing and X-Ray Computed Tomography

Published

Author(s)

Felix Kim, Shawn P. Moylan, Thien Q. Phan, Edward Garboczi

Abstract

Insufficient data are available to fully understand the effects of metal additive manufacturing (AM) defects for widespread adoption of the emerging technology. Characterization of failure processes of complex internal geometries and defects in metal AM can significantly enhance this understanding. We aim to demonstrate a complete experimental measurement process and failure analysis method to study the effects of AM defects. We utilized simultaneous implementation of tensile tests with high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (XCT) measurements on 17–4 stainless steel dog-bone samples with an intentional octahedron-shaped internal cavity included in the gauge length and also containing much smaller lack-of-fusion (LOF) defects, all generated by a Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing process. The LOF defects were introduced by intentionally changing the LPBF default processing parameters. XCT image-based linear elastic finite element (FE) simulations were used to interpret the data. The in-situ tensile tests combined with simultaneous XCT measurements revealed the details of the failure process initiated by additively manufactured rough internal surfaces and porous defect structures, which experienced high stress concentrations. Progressive collapse of ligaments leading to larger pores was clearly observed, and the resulting porosity evolution until failure was quantitatively analyzed. The high stress concentrations were also directly confirmed by the FE simulations. The experimental methods described in this paper enable the quantitative study of the complex failure mechanisms of additively manufactured metal parts, and the image-based FE simulation method is effective for identifying and/or confirming possible failure locations and features.
Citation
Experimental Mechanics

Keywords

X-ray tomography, additive manufacturing, tensile test, in-situ testing, internal defects, defects

Citation

Kim, F. , Moylan, S. , Phan, T. and Garboczi, E. (2021), Investigation of the Effect of Artificial Internal Defects on the Tensile Behavior of Laser Powder Bed Fusion 17–4 Stainless Steel Samples: Simultaneous Tensile Testing and X-Ray Computed Tomography, Experimental Mechanics, [online], https://doi.org/10.1007/s11340-020-00604-6, https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=927868 (Accessed September 28, 2022)
Created October 5, 2021, Updated December 23, 2021