First principles calculations show that electric fields applied to ferromagnets generate spin currents flowing perpendicularly to the electric field. Reduced symmetry in these ferromagnets enables a wide variety of such spin currents. However, the total spin current is approximately the sum of a magnetization-independent spin Hall current and an anisotropic spin anomalous Hall current. Intrinsic spin currents are not subject to dephasing, enabling their spin polarizations to be misaligned with the magnetization, which enables the magnetization- independent spin Hall effect. The spin Hall conductivity and spin anomalous Hall conductivities of transition metal ferromagnets are comparable to those found in heavy metals, opening new avenues for efficient spin current generation in spintronic devices.
Physical Review B