Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Intelligent Systems Annotated Bibliography and SurveyPart I. Systems with Intelligent Controllers



Alex Meystel


In Part I of this report, a place of Intelligent Control in the variety of systems is discussed. In many cases it amounts to transforming the system into an intelligent system. Intelligent Systems employ principles of information generalization, semiotic closure and multiresolutional (multigranular, multiscale) representation similar to the one applied in RCS architecture. The annotated bibliography and survey of literature demonstrate that the number of devices and principles that can be associated with intelligent control much exceeds those applied in three broadly used components: fuzzy representation, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Using these components only doesn't specify all variety of possible technical solutions. A broad multiplicity of existing intelligent systems demonstrate human-like capabilities of dealing with uncertainties: like in expert system and knowledge bases equipped controllers, multi-agent behavior based controllers, game-theoretic controllers, and others. This annotated bibliography and survey prove that intelligent controllers can be better recognized by taking in account the computational tools they use and by the architecture, within which these tools are engrained. This issue will be addressed in more detail in the second part of the survey.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 6567
Report Number


fuzzy, generalization, intelligence, intelligent control, intelligent system, multigranular, multiresolution, multiscale, neural


Meystel, A. (2002), Intelligent Systems Annotated Bibliography and SurveyPart I. Systems with Intelligent Controllers, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed June 15, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created March 29, 2002, Updated November 21, 2008