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Integrating Spheres for Mid- and Near-Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy



Leonard M. Hanssen, K A. Snail


Integrating sphere instrumentation has historically been the primary analysis tool for accurate quantitative characterization of reflectance and absorptance of samples and materials that exhibit a high degree of scattering. We present a review of integrating sphere instrumentation and reflectance measurement methods based on them. The focus is kept on systems for the near and mid infrared spectral regions of 0.8 m to 2.5 mm, and 2.5 mm to 20 mm, respectively. Topics that are discussed include how sphere systems function in diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, what the various designs and methods for reflectance and transmittance measurement are, both absolute and relative, what the sources of measurement error are, and some examples of modern commercial integrating sphere reflectometer systems.
Sampling Techniques for Vibrational Spectroscopy
Publisher Info
John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ


diffuse, directional-hemispherical, hemispherical, infrared, integrating sphere, near infrared, optical properties, reflectance, reflectometry


Hanssen, L. and Snail, K. (2002), Integrating Spheres for Mid- and Near-Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, [online], (Accessed July 21, 2024)


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Created January 1, 2002, Updated March 1, 2018